Producing original research is a significant component of graduate studies in the humanities, natural sciences and social sciences. This research typically leads to the writing and defense of a thesis or dissertation. In graduate programs that are oriented towards professional training (e. g. , MPA, MBA, MHA), the degrees may consist solely of coursework, without an original research or thesis component. The term "graduate school" is primarily North American. Additionally, in North America, the term does not usually refer to medical school (whose students are called "medical students"), and only occasionally refers to law school or business school; these are often collectively termed professional schools. Graduate students in the humanities, sciences and social sciences often receive funding from the school (e. g. , fellowships or scholarships) and/or a teaching assistant position or other job; in the profession-oriented grad programs, students are less likely to get funding, and the fees are typically much higher.
Students could pursue one of several related concentrations, including construction management and urban and landscape design, while honing their technical and artistic prowess. Programs combine artistic principles with science and engineering, helping students learn more about designing attractive and useful structures while building up their portfolios.